Environmental determinism vs possibilism
Environmental determinism is a theory suggested by Carl Sauer in 1920s.
The main idea is that environment determines and causes social development. This theory is criticized for being too general and even racist.
(eg. LDCs are less developed because their environment limited their development.)
Environmental possibilism is a theory that counter environmental determinism.
The main idea is that although environment is a factor that influences the social development, the main factors are members' needs and the technology available to them.